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CPDP clarification on consent under Regulation 2016/679
Consent should be given by a clear affirmative act establishing a freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject`s agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her, such as by a written statement, including by electronic means, or an oral statement. This could include ticking a box when visiting an internet website, choosing technical settings for information society services or another statement or conduct which clearly indicates in this context the data subject`s acceptance of the proposed processing of his or her personal data. Silence, pre-ticked boxes or inactivity should not therefore constitute consent. Consent should cover all processing activities carried out for the same purpose or purposes. When the processing has multiple purposes, consent should be given for all of them. If the data subject`s consent is to be given following a request by electronic means, the request must be clear, concise and not unnecessarily disruptive to the use of the service for which it is provided. At the same time, the data subject should have the right to withdraw consent at any time without affecting the lawfulness of processing based on consent before its withdrawal. In order to ensure that consent is freely given, consent should not provide a valid legal ground for the processing of personal data in a specific case where there is a clear imbalance between the data subject and the controller and it is therefore unlikely that consent was freely given in all the circumstances of that specific situation. It is often not possible to fully identify the purpose of personal data processing for scientific research purposes at the time of data collection. Therefore, data subjects should be allowed to give their consent to certain areas of scientific research when in keeping with recognised ethical standards for scientific research. Data subjects should have an opportunity to give their consent only to certain areas of research or parts of research projects to the extent allowed by the intended purpose.